The lungs are the organs that take the oxygen in the chest cavity and give the carbon dioxide. Lung cancer is the type of cancer caused by the uncontrolled proliferation of tissues in these organs. 2. It is the disease that causes death after heart diseases in the world. In 12’dir.türkiye’% incidence in the world, in general, is the most common types of cancer among cancer types associated with 26%. The incidence is higher in males than in females.
- Causes of Lung Cancer:
Smoking is the main cause of lung cancer. Smoking causes the lungs to lose their self-cleaning ability over time. With the effect of carcinogenic substances found in cigarettes, the cells are damaged and cause cancer. Smoking is the most common cause of lung cancer, but 10% of men with non-smoker cancer and 20% of women with cancer is not related to smoking. People who are non-smokers are at risk of being passive smokers. The relationship between cancer and smoking varies according to factors such as the amount of cigarette smoking in the daily use amount of smoking age.
Among other reasons, arsenic asbestos aluminium chromium mustard gas radiation such as nickelvinyl chloride radon gas and cadmium beryllium is important. In addition, environmental factors should not be ignored. Those living in urban areas are seen 2 – 3 times more than in rural areas. Other factors such as genetic predisposition, tuberculosis and other factors are listed as nutrition-related causes.
- Symptoms of Lung Cancer:
- A long-lasting cough
- Difficulty in breathing Shortness of breath
- Bloody and excessive sputum extraction spitting blood
- Chest Pain
- Shoulder and arm pains
- Strain during swallowing
- Irregular heartbeat
- A headache
- Swelling of the face and neck
- Frequent recurrent bronchitis and pneumonia fever
- Weight loss
- The feeling of frequent and deep breathing during physical activities.
- Diagnosis and Diagnosis:
Lung cancer in order to determine the diagnosis and the stage at which it is performed, lung x-ray sputum analysis tests are requested from the patient. Also, the tissue is taken from the lung to determine the type of lung cancer and to determine whether the body’s lymph nodes spread (metastasize) to sections such as the brain bone. Methods for obtaining tissue fragments; bronchoscopy (bronchus and a thin light tube inserted into the trachea is examined with a thin tube of tissue is taken. Needle Aspiration is taken from the chest wall of the tissue is taken from the cancer tissue is examined under the microscope is examined by the microscope, the fluid surrounding the lung is a process of taking the sample biopsy, unlike the common cause of the disease does not cause the spread or course of worsening. According to the results, the stage of the disease and the treatment methods to be monitored are decided.
- Types of Lung Cancer:
Small Cell Lung Cancer:
Small cell lung cancer is more rapidly developing and spreading in the lung. Surgical treatment is not preferred. For the treatment, the stage of the disease is determined. If one side of the lung is seen on the limited stage2 side and spread to other organs, the diagnosis is made in the advanced stage. The recurrence of the disease is likely. Chemotherapy method is done by applying the tumour to some patients to protect the brain radiotherapy method is applied.
Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer:
They are more common than small cell lung cancer. They develop and spread more slowly as a course of the disease. There are three basic types of this cancer; adenocarcinoma – large cell. It is essential to determine the stage of the disease in the treatment of this type of cancer and to perform treatment according to the stage.
- Lung Cancer Phases:
Stage 1: Cancer has a size of 5 cm or less and has not spread to lymph nodes.
Stage 2: Cancer is not spread to the lymph nodes but is larger than 5 cm or close to the rib cage or diaphragm. Cancer is considered to be the second stage, although it is spread to 7 cm or smaller lymph nodes or near the bronchi.
Stage 3: Cancer is spread to the lymph nodes between the lungs or close to the section of the trachea. It is a very common type of spread. However, it has also been seen that the lungs are spread to organs such as the lung lobe or other lobes of the lungs of the lungs without spreading to the lymph nodes or lymph nodes.
Stage 4: Cancer is seen in the lymph nodes on the other side of the breast or on the collarbone or wider (like the heart trachea) and in the lymph nodes in the middle of the chest or close to the region where the trachea is divided.
Stage 5: At this stage, cancer appears to spread to the lungs in both lung lobes and to other parts of the body, such as the fluid surrounding the heart or the brain liver.
- Treatment Methods Applied:
It is an operation to take the cancerous cell in the lung. If the disease is not spreading (metastasis) in the 1st or 2nd stage, it is done by removing the tumour and lymph nodes. However, surgical intervention method may not be performed because of tumour size or patient’s health status.
It is the process of killing cancer cells by applying drugs to cancer cells. It consists of multiple drugs. The number of drugs is given as a cure. It is applied in 2 or 3 weeks periods.
Radiotherapy Beam Therapy Method:
It is the application of high-energy light to kill cancer cells and shrink a tumour. It is used to kill the remaining cells and spread cells after surgical intervention. It is only applied to tumour cells as it will damage the healthy tissues. Loss of appetite causes loss of appetite such as nausea.
Lung Cancer Life Time:
The duration of life is directly proportional to the stage of the disease and the stage at which it was diagnosed. Early diagnosis and treatment are vital. Early Diagnosis Saves You Life!